As usual, the BevTech Europe planning committee promises a great line-up of speakers and presentations. In addition to the regulation updates for the European beverage industry, we will feature some of the emerging challenges such as off-notes, microbes, and particles that are sure to grab your attention.
Take a look at the Final Programme, then be sure to register so you don't miss a single presentation! We look forward to seeing you on 30 September 2021, 14.00-18.00 Central European Time.
Sustainability and Water Usage Rates dictate the need to Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. After source reduction efforts are met, this presentation discusses a novel method using live case study to demonstrate water conservation using MBRs.
Anthony Amendola is the North American Application Engineering Leader for the Wastewater Projects Business at SUEZ Water Technologies & Solutions. His main responsibilities is to work with municipal and industrial customers in utilizing SUEZ technology and services to solve their wastewater treatment problems. Prior to this role, Anthony held various other positions at ZENON Environmental, GE Water, and SUEZ including business development, commissioning engineer, process engineer, project manager, and account manager. Anthony also led the re-inauguration of BevTech Canada 2018 for ISBT, and chaired both the 2019 and 2020 editions of the Conference. Anthony received a degree in Biological Engineering from the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada.
Decreasing bottle weights and increasingly entwined supply chains set high demands for the measurement technology used for monitoring of beverage products. A synoptic quality indicator for carbonated beverages is the CO2 concentration. The determination of the CO2 content in packed beverages is commonly accomplished by a destructive measurement of both pressure and fluid temperature and then calculation of the concentration using Henry's law. Although this simple and robust technique allows for an accurate and reliable measurement, the piercing of the container imposes grave limitations on the application area. Damaged samples cannot be measured again, preventing them from being part of shelf life investigations. Furthermore, the resulting waste generally makes in-situ measurement difficult: The deployment of the mostly stationary instruments is bound to laboratory environments with waste disposal available. Thus, an uncomplicated application in supermarkets, remote warehouses or even along transport chains is not possible. In order to enable a non-destructive measurement, the challenge of a reliable non-invasive measurement of the pressure has to be overcome first. In this talk, approaches based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLAS) are compared and evaluated regarding their applicability. After that, a novel method utilizing spectral line shape analysis is presented which works independently of container parameters like the headspace diameter. It is shown that the method offers a practical synergy with a handheld device, qualifying it for usage throughout the lifetime of beverage products. Finally, the first device implementing the method - the Steinfurth NICO - is presented and benchmarked.
Markus Grafen studied mechanical engineering at TU Dortmund and Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) and after receiving his diploma in 2012 he started working as research associate at the Chair of Applied Laser Technologies in RUB. As part of his research Markus developed different field measuring device based on Raman and infrared spectroscopy. Since 2019 he is employed at Steinfurth GmbH, using his expertise to meet challenges in the beverage industry. Expectedly this year he will finish his PhD thesis titled "Factor analytical methods for vibrational spectroscopic data and instruments".
Odors and odor impressions both in a positive and in a negative way have drawn the attention of mankind since ancient times. Not only the positive changes of food smell by the cooking process but also the smell of certain plants and oils have played an important role for centuries. The odor active substances belong to the volatile fraction of a food product. This is normally the smallest part of the product, nevertheless this is the driving part which is responsible for the acceptance or rejection by consumers. Off-flavors and taints are defined as unpleasant odors or tastes, the first resulting from the natural deterioration of a food and beverages, the second from its contamination by some other chemical. Although the mass range of odour active substances is limited to 400 Dalton there are literally hundreds or thousands of compounds having different structure, polarities and hetero atoms, so the chances of spectroscopic and chromatographic interferences is quite likely. Another restriction of analytical approaches is the fact that the method must reach the limits of detection which should be in the range of the sensory threshold. This range spans several orders of magnitude from nanogram per kilogram (or even below) to the upper milligram per kilogram range. In this presentation strategies for the determination of odors and off-odors will be discussed. Presenting several examples for pleasant and unpleasant smell in beverages should demonstrate the problems and the approaches to get reliable results. Beside the sample preparation steps the focus on this presentation will be given on the separation and the detection of the target substances.
Erich Leitner studied technical chemistry at the Graz University of Technology, Austria where he obtained a PhD in organic trace analysis and habilitation in "Food Chemistry". His research activities are focused on the identification of volatile and odor active substances in food and food contact materials. He has over 30 years of experience in organic trace and ultra trace analysis mainly based on gas chromatographic methods. Currently he is head of the Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Food Chemistry at the Graz University of Technology. In his research, he combines the use of a trained expert panel and highly specific equipment based on gas chromatographic techniques for the identification and quantification of smelly molecules.
In the bottling of non-carbonated beverages, the undesirable phenomenon of foam formation can often be observed in practice, which directly influences key technical and economic factors of production. To avoid over-foaming, a strategy could consist of controlling the net foam balance, which balances foam generation and natural or enforced foam decay. To this end, tools for predicting foam formation during the filling of various beverages, thermal and acoustic actuators for targeted foam destruction, and a neuro-controller for setting optimized operating conditions were developed and evaluated. Foam formation during the filling of non-carbonated beverages was characterized experimentally. The resulting foams show strong morphological similarities and can be described as wet and polydisperse with bubble sizes in the range of 0.1-2 mm. Due to the complexity of foam formation in the filling process, a recurrent neural network was chosen for predicting the time-resolved foam evolution. Ultrasound and thermal radiation were used for the targeted destruction of foams. Airborne sonication acts mainly on the surface of the foam, while sonication via the bottle wall leads to accelerated foam destruction. Irrespective of the sound frequency, the foam height can thus be reduced by several centimeters at times relevant to the filling process, especially at the start of filling and when entering the bottle cone. In the case of thermal radiation, the results show that foam destruction is possible in principle. In further work, a volume flow control system for the filling process was developed with foam formation as the control variable.
Christopher McHardy is currently working as a Post-Doc at Technische Universität Berlin, Chair of Food Biotechnology and Food Process Engineering, where he is leading the Biothermofluiddynamics working group. He holds a Master's degree in Brewing and Beverage Technology from TU Munich and a Ph.D. in Food Technology from TU Berlin. His research focus is on engineering all kinds of food processing technologies with special emphasis on the processing of multiphase food systems, the development of sustainable food processing technologies, process digitalization and the valorization of microalgae biomass.
Head retention is an important factor of beer-quality, because the foam is one of the first impressions to the beer-drinker. Generally foam consists of colloidal dispersions of gases in liquids or solids. If beer foam collapses early, carbon dioxide bubbles can leave the beer without difficulties and so off-flavours can be recognized easier. Foam stability depends on substances dissolved in the liquid, which lower the surface tension and get concentrated in the foam which is being formed. But such surface-active substances can only lead to good head retention, if they are also able to form a skin, which is tough and resists breaking. Such substances especially are proteins and hop resins, which indeed are concentrated in beer foam. So these components are generally regarded as the basis of beer foam, but there are a lot of other influences. The higher the viscosity of beer, the better the head retention, because a highly viscous liquid is not drained quickly from the liquid films around the gas-bubbles into the liquid phase. So high-molecular carbohydrates, which increase the viscosity of beer, also can improve head retention. Another important fact is the size of the carbon dioxide bubbles, which are formed when the beer is poured into the glass. Large bubbles rise quickly to the surface and therefore they only have a short time to pick up surface-active components. Small bubbles on the other hand rise more slowly and so there will be more surface-active material in the surface-film of such small bubbles. This fact results in a longer life-time of small bubbles. Also the composition of the gas in the bubbles is important for foam stability. The better the solubility of the gas in beer (this will be its rate of diffusion through the liquid films), the quicker will be its movement from small to large bubbles. So air or nitrogen inside the bubbles will result in a better foam stability than carbon dioxide. Therefore turbulent pouring of beer into a glass, which leads to an uptake of air by the beer, will lead to better head retention. Because of their ability to react with iso-alpha-acids, heavy metal ions also can improve foam stability. These reactions only occur, when the isohumulone-concentration is very high. Normally such high isohumulone contents are not present in beer, but in beer foam, because of the enrichment of hop resins in the foam fraction. On the other hand we know some substances which can decrease foam stability. The most important ones are fats and lipids including phospholipids, mono-, di- and triglycerides, free fatty acids and esters of fatty acids. These substances are mainly derived from malt, only some of them are synthesized during fermentation. Normally their concentration in beer is too low to influence head retention. Also a high concentration of amino acids – especially of hydrophylic ones – can result in a bad stability of beer foam. The foam-negative influence of ethanol is easily noticeable at concentrations of about 10 % or higher. However, in normal beers there is only a small influence of this component on head retention. Last not least it has to be mentioned, that cleanings and disinfectants have a strong foam-destroying effect. The brewing process influences the concentration of foam-positive and foam-negative substances in beer and therefore head retention can be regulated by technological measures. Important for foam stability are malt modification, use of adjuncts, mashing procedure, lautering process, hopping rate and the hop-product used. But there is also an influence of the yeast-strain, pitching rate, fermentation temperature and pressure. Even maturation, filtration, stabilization (especially with proteolytic enzymes or bentonite) and the handling of bottled or casked beer can effect head retention.
Dipl.-Ing. Burghard Meyer (Brewing Engineer) finished his apprenticeship as a brewer and maltster in the Bolten Brewery in Korschenbroich, Germany. After two years working as an officer at the German air force he studied and graduated as an engineer for brewing and biotechnology at the Technical University Berlin and started his job as a research assistant at the VLB. Today (since 2006) he is responsible for the international training courses of the VLB Berlin and the main teacher in Brewing and Malting technology. Next to this, he is involved in various research projects (actual project: Development of a continuous fermentation procedure by immobilisation of the yeast in a crossflow reactor).
Since 2011 he is head master (CEO) and founder of the Berlin Brewers Guild. He is member in various Brewing associations, supporter of German Scout organisations and very interested in Celtic culture, history, and music.
Spoilage of thermally processed beverages by heat-resistant Thermophilic Acidophilic Bacteria (TAB) such as Alicyclobacillus spp. is a widespread problem for the beverage and juice industries. Their spores possess the ability to survive commercial pasteurization processes, to germinate and grow in low pH environments and to produce volatile, unpleasant odorous compounds (guaiacol and halophenols) in fruit juices and other beverages. The flat sour type of spoilage (without gas production or package swelling) is characterized as having a "medicinal," "smoky," and "antiseptic" off-flavor and makes the final product unacceptable. Spoilage by Alicyclobacillus guaiacol-producing species such A. acidoterrestris is a major concern for producers since many of the new methods, which can destroy some spores in the absence of chemical additives, may not destroy Alicyclobacillus spores. Although A. acidoterrestris is not pathogenic to humans, it can result in significant economic losses to juice and beverage processors because of its taint. The eradication of Alicyclobacillus species from the equipment presents a challenge since they are involved in biofilm formation which protects them from the effect of sanitizers. This presentation will cover a review of the history and general characteristics of the genus Alicyclobacillus, as well as their heat resistance and spoilage, control methods including chemical and physical methods and combined methods.
Dr. Emilia Rico is a native of Spain. She received her M.S. and Ph.D. in Food Technology and Science with emphasis in food microbiology from the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. She has been trained in food mycology by world leading food mycologists such as Dr. John Pitt (CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences, Australia), Dr. Ailsa Hocking (CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences, Australia) and Dr. Rob Samson (Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, Utrecht, the Netherlands). She is well known for her expertise in the area of spoilage investigation and prevention of (1) beverage and high acid foods (preserved food and beverages, heat-processed beverages that are hot-filled or cold-filled: sport drinks, juices, drinks containing juices, teas, nutritionally enriched beverages, bottled waters, flavored waters, etc.), (2) dairy products (milk, flavored milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, etc.), (3) low and intermediate moisture food spoilage (baking products, tortillas, cereal and protein bars, confectionery, jellies, preserves, pet foods and treats, etc.). She is frequently invited as a speaker in food and beverage spoilage, food safety and sanitation.
Intensive public debates are currently going on about the occurrence and effects of microplastics and microparticle in the environment. This also concerns producers and bottlers of beverages. But research is still in its infancy and often reliable scientific data are lacking. Many studies focus on water as it allows for a simple analysis due to its homogeneous, translucent and low viscous appearance compared to e.g. juices or solid food. But to this day no universal or standardized analytical method has been established to define microplastics and / nor microparticle concentrations or limits. Therefore, continuously monitoring of current research projects and results in the field of microplastics and microparticle is done. New findings about can and will be considered in the design of equipment. As a result, the focus is on the measurement of microparticles, and not in particular on microplastics. In doing so, microplastics which are defined to be smaller than 5 mm will be measured as well. So, tests to find out where and to which extend microparticle are introduced, generated and removed in a filling plant were carried out e.g. with the aid of a particle counter or fluorescence microscopy. These tests are done for whole filling lines, where stage controls are carried out at various plants. The product to be filled, the bottles and caps are measured at different stages within the filling plant. Since the introduction of microparticle is supposed to be very likely in cleaning and filter systems, these are also considered. That leads to concepts for filling that are as low as possible in particle content, first approaches of particle avoidance and removement have already been implemented.
Dr. Jörg Zacharias graduated in 1997 at the Technical University of Munich in Weihenstephan as an engineer in Food Science. 2003 he finished his post-graduate studies with a doctoral degree at the affiliated department of fluid-mechanics and process-automation. Over the last years he was and still is active as associate lecturer in various fields as mechanical and food process technology as well as for plant design and control. In 2005 he moved to Krones AG in the research and development department, where he was significantly involved in the development of various future technologies. For it he is an expert for hygienic design, process technology and the matters of rheology of all kinds of beverages. Further with his expertise he is involved in the development of several manuals and guidelines in the soft drink and brewing sector as for the EBC, ISBT and MEBAK. Among other things, he is currently the technical program lead of the BevTech Europe and the 1st vice chair of the Beverage Operations and Processing Committee at the ISBT.